Bi-level optimization



Multi-objective robust optimal bidding strategy for a data center operator based on bi-level optimization

Multiobjective Bilevel Optimization: A Survey of the State-of-the-Art

MO-PSO Based Bi-level Multi-objective Optimal Configuration of Energy Storage System in Distribution Network

Multi {VPP} bi-level optimization scheduling method based on complementary water-light-storage system

Model Predictive Traffic Control by Bi-Level Optimization

MO-BBO: Multi-Objective Bilevel Bayesian Optimization for Robot and Behavior Co-Design

Multi-modal urban transit network design considering reliability: multi-objective bi-level optimization

Multilevel multi-leader multiple-follower games with nonseparable objectives and shared constraints

MultiLevel Composite Stochastic Optimization via Nested Variance Reduction

Multi-period vulnerability analysis of power grids under multiple outages: An AC-based bilevel optimization approach

Modified Evolutionary Algorithm and Chaotic Search for Bilevel Programming Problems

Multilevel Optimisation

Multilevel Optimization for Registration of Deformable Point Clouds

Methods for Multiobjective Bilevel Optimization

Managing decentralized supply chain using bilevel with Nash game approach

Modified Tseng{\textquotesingle}s extragradient methods with self-adaptive step size for solving bilevel split variational inequality problems

Multi-Leader Multi-follower Stackelberg Game in Mobile Blockchain Mining

MPEC Methods for Bilevel Optimization Problems

Methods for Pessimistic Bilevel Optimization

Multi-objective bi-level optimization model for the investment in gas infrastructures

Multiobjective two-level simple recourse programming problems with discrete random variables

Market-Based Customer Reliability Provision in Distribution Systems Based on Game Theory: A Bi-Level Optimization Approach

Multiobjective Bilevel Programming: Concepts and Perspectives of Development

Mixed-integer bilevel representability

Modeling the Techno-Economic Interactions of Infrastructure and Service Providers in 5G Networks With a Multi-Leader-Follower Game

Multilevel controlling of Informative systems by QR-codes

Multilevel Modeling and Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling in Lifespan Developmental Analyses

Multi-Factor Incentive Pricing Bi-Level Programming Model for Construction Project

Modified NSGA-II Based Interactive Algorithm for Linear Multiobjective Bilevel Programs

Multilevel Thresholding Segmentation based on Otsu’s Method and Autonomous Groups Particle Swarm Optimization for Multispectral Image

Multilevel Image Thresholding Based on Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization

Multi-objective Planning of Soft Open Point in Active Distribution Network Based on Bi-level Programming

Multi-Objective Bi-Level Programming for the Energy-Aware Integration of Flexible Job Shop Scheduling and Multi-Row Layout

Multiobjective Bilevel Optimization Problem

Multi-parametric global optimization approach for tri-level mixed-integer linear optimization problems

Multi-view Facial Expression Recognition Based on Fusing Low-level and Mid-level Features

Multilevel soil degradation analysis focusing on soil erosion as a basis for agrarian landscape optimization

Methodological Advances and New Formulations for Bilevel Network Design Problems

Moth-Flame Optimization Algorithm Based Multilevel Thresholding for Image Segmentation

Management and performance evaluation of DSR aggregator based on a bi-level optimization model

Multilevel Models

Multi-leader-Follower Incentive Stackelberg Game for Infinite-Horizon Markov Jump Linear Stochastic Systems with H_∞ Constraint

Minimum Energy Control of Redundant Systems Using Evolutionary Bi-Level Optimization

Multilevel News Networks

Modelling three-echelon warm-water fish supply chain: A bi-level optimization approach under Nash–Cournot equilibrium

Multilevel Coordinate Optimization of Cloud Manufacturing

Modelling diffusion for multi-generational product planning strategies using bi-level optimization

Multilevel topology optimization

Modelling Multiobjective Bilevel Programming for Environmental-Economic Power Generation and Dispatch Using Genetic Algorithm

Multilevel authentication scheme for security critical networks

Mechanism Design and Auctions for Electricity Networks

Multimodal truss structure design using bilevel and niching based evolutionary algorithms

Multilevel Network Theory

Multi-Leader Multi-Follower Model with Aggregative Uncertainty

Multilevel optimization of profile of splitter blades in the impeller of a centrifugal compressor

Multilevel Automatic Synthesis of Behavioral Programs for Smart Devices

  • Authors: Vasiliy Yu. Osipov, Alexander I. Vodyaho, Natalia A. Zhukova, Petr A. Glebovsky

  • Published in: 2017 International Conference on Control, Artificial Intelligence, Robotics & Optimization (ICCAIRO), 2017.

  • DOI:

  • Get bib file

Multilevel morphological fuzzy edge detection for color images (MMFED)

Multi-parametric programming based algorithms for the global solution of bi-level mixed-integer linear and quadratic programming problems

Multilevel Segmentation of Fundus Images using Dragonfly Optimization

Multi-objective bilevel fuzzy probabilistic programming problem

Multilevel image thresholding using elephant herding optimization algorithm

Maximum entropy approach for solving pessimistic bilevel programming problems

Models of Computation

Multi-objective Multi-level Filling Evolutionary Algorithm for the 3D Cutting Stock Problem

Multicore and data-level optimization

Metamodel-based prediction of performance metrics for bilevel parameter tuning in MOEAs

Multiobjective bi-level programming for shared inventory with emergency and backorders

Multilevel crypting approach for ensuring secured transmission of clandestine images

Multilevel image segmentation using hybrid Darwinian swarm Optimization

Multilevel Optimization Modeling for Risk-Averse Stochastic Programming

Mitigation of harmonics in multilevel inverter controlled by fuzzy logic controller

Multi-Population Based Ensemble Mutation Method for Single Objective Bilevel Optimization Problem

Multi-choice stochastic bi-level programming problem in cooperative nature via fuzzy programming approach

Multilevel component selection optimization toward an optimal architecture

Multilevel Collaborative Aerodynamic Design Optimization Based on Sobol’ Global Sensitivity Analysis

Multi-objective Evolutionary Method for Dynamic Vehicle Routing and Scheduling Problem with Customers’ Satisfaction Level

Multidisciplinary and Multilevel Aircraft Design Methodology Using Enhanced Collaborative Optimization

Multilevel Field-Development Optimization Using a Sequence of Upscaled Models

Mixed-Integer Bilevel Programming Problems

Multilevel Routing Protocol for Energy Optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks

  • Authors: Hamza Fahim, Nadeem Javaid, Zahoor Ali Khan, Umar Qasim, Shumaila Javed, Danish Mahmood, Zafar Iqbal

  • Published in: 2015 9th International Conference on Innovative Mobile and Internet Services in Ubiquitous Computing, 2015.

  • DOI:

  • Get bib file

Modeling truck scheduling problem at a cross-dock facility through a bi-objective bi-level optimization approach

Multilevel Business Process Automation

Multilevel Models for Multilevel Network Dependencies

Measuring the technical efficiency of local banks in UAE using rough bi-level linear programming technique

Multi-Objective Mechanism Design Using a Bi-Level Game Theoretic Formulation

Multilevel Design Optimization With Application to Material-Product Systems


Multiobjective bilevel optimization for production-distribution planning problems using hybrid genetic algorithm

Multiproduct Price Optimization Under the Multilevel Nested Logit Model

MrDIRECT: a multilevel robust DIRECT algorithm for global optimization problems

Multilevel power converter with a dual T-type three level inverter for energy storage

Multilevel thresholding for image segmentation based on parallel distributed optimization

Multi-leader multi-follower stackelberg game among Wi-Fi, small cell and macrocell networks

Mixed integer parametric bilevel programming for optimal strategic bidding of energy producers in day-ahead electricity markets with indivisibilities

Matheuristics and Exact Methods for the Discrete (r|p)-Centroid Problem

Multilevel Local Optimization of Modularity

Multilevel Modeling

  • Authors: Pierre-Alain Boucard, Sandrine Buytet, Bruno Soulier, Praveen Chandrashekarappa, Régis Duvigneau

  • Published in: Multidisciplinary Design Optimization in Computational Mechanics, 199–263, 2013.

  • DOI:

  • Get bib file

Multi-Level Design Approaches for Electro-Mechanical Systems Optimization

Mixed 0−1 Goal Programming Approach to Interval-Valued Bilevel Programming Problems Via Bio-Inspired Computational Algorithm

Multilevel Thresholding Using Chaos Optimization and Differential Evolution Algorithm

Modified multilevel layout optimization method of composite wing structure

Modeling Capacity of Urban Rail Transit Network Based on Bi-Level Programming

Multi-table Pivoting Algorithms for Solving Linear Bilevel Programming Problems

Multilevel microwave design optimization with automated model fidelity adjustment

Mid-term generation scheduling on the basis of a bi-level optimization problem

Multilevel Multidisciplinary Optimization in Airplane Design

Making Decisions as A Student: Decision-Making Opportunities

Model predictive torque control with duty ratio optimization for two-level inverter-fed induction motor drive


Multilevel Optimization for Decision-Based Design

Multilevel Subdivision Techniques for Scalar Optimization Problems

Multilevel image thresholding using relative entropy and Virus Optimization Algorithm

Metaheuristic methods for solving the Bilevel Uncapacitated Facility Location Problem with Clients’ Preferences

Manufacturer–retailer supply chain coordination: A bi-level programming approach

Mathematical Programs with Equilibrium Constraints: A Brief Survey of Methods and Optimality Conditions

Multi-level multi-objective decision problem through fuzzy random regression based objective function

Multiple optimization and segmentation technique (MOST) for large-scale bilevel life cycle optimization

Multilevel image thresholding by using the shuffled frog-leaping optimization algorithm

Multilevel decomposition based nondeterministic design optimization for structural systems

Modelling Airlines Competition on Fares and Frequencies of Service by Bi-level Optimization

Multiparametric programming based algorithms for pure integer and mixed-integer bilevel programming problems

Multistage transmission network expansion planning in competitive electricity market based on bi-level programming method

Multilevel Optimization Algorithms Based on Metamodel- and Fitness Inheritance-Assisted Evolutionary Algorithms

Multilevel LDPC-Coded High-Speed Optical Systems: Efficient Hard Decoding and Code Optimization

Multi-objective optimization for inventory control in two-level assembly systems under uncertainty of lead times

Multilevel minimum cross entropy threshold selection based on the honey bee mating optimization

Modeling a Two-Level Formalism for Inflection of Nouns and Verbs in Albanian

Model building using bi-level optimization

Model and algorithm for the risk management of Virtual Enterprise based on the Bilevel Programming

Model for road network equilibrium bi-level programming based on rough genetic algorithm

Multilevel maximum entropy threshold selection based on quantum particle swarm optimization

Multilevel (Hierarchical) Optimization: Complexity Issues, Optimality Conditions, Algorithms

Mass Rapid Transit Scheme Planning Based on Bi-Level Programming Model

Multi-stage optimal design for groundwater remediation: A hybrid bi-level programming approach

Mixed Integer Nonlinear Bilevel Programming: Deterministic Global Optimization

Multilevel thresholding algorithm based on particle swarm optimization for image segmentation

Manifold mapping: a two-level optimization technique

Multiobjective bilevel optimization

Multilevel optimization in aircraft structural design evaluation

Multidisciplinary and Multilevel Design Optimization Problems with Equilibrium Constraints

Multilevel cooperative coevolution for large scale optimization

Multilevel optimization of composite panels under complex load and boundary conditions

Manifold Mapping for Multilevel Optimization

Multilevel optimization strategies based on metamodel-assisted evolutionary algorithms, for computationally expensive problems

Multilevel-Multiphase Optimization of Composite Rotor Blade with Surrogate Model

Multilevel scheme parameters optimization of the PO-ML-BSP method by using a simulated annealing algorithm

Multiobjective optimization problems with equilibrium constraints

Models and Algorithms for Fuzzy Multi-objective Multi-follower Linear Bilevel Programming in a Partial Cooperative Situation

Model Selection via Bilevel Optimization

Multicriteria Approach to Bilevel Optimization

Model and algorithm for bilevel newsboy problem with fuzzy demands and discounts

Multilevel Optimization for Enterprise Driven Decision-Based Product Design

Multilevel Optimization Considering Variability in Design Variables of Multidisciplinary System

Mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints: the existence of feasible point

Model and extended Kuhn–Tucker approach for bilevel multi-follower decision making in a referential-uncooperative situation


Mathematical Programs with Vector Optimization Constraints

Multilevel parallel optimization using massively parallel structural dynamics

Multilevel Variable Fidelity Optimization of a Morphing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

  • Authors: Shawn Gano, Victor Perez, John Renaud, Stephen Batill, Brian Sanders

  • Published in: 45th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics & Materials Conference, 2004.

  • DOI:

  • Get bib file

Multilevel Sampling and Optimization Methods

Models and Bounds for Two-Dimensional Level Packing Problems

Multilevel parallelization strategy for optimization of aerodynamic shapes

Multi Level Boarding Bi-Level Commuter Car for North American Market

Multilevel optimization of a supersonic aircraft

Multigrid Solvers and Multilevel Optimization Strategies

Multilevel Circuit Placement

Multilevel VLSI Routing

Multilevel Hypergraph Partitioning

Multistage bilevel programming problems


Multilevel Optimization of a Composite Aircraft Wing Using Viconopt MLO

Multiobjective bilevel optimization for transportation planning and management problems

Multilevel Methods For Optimal Design


Multilevel Optimization of Optimal Control Problems

Multilevel parallelism for optimization on MP computers - Theory and experiment

Mesh Optimization and Multilevel Finite Element Approximations

Multilevel Optimization Methods in Mechanics

Multilevel Simulation and Numerical Optimization of Complex Engineering Designs

Multilevel optimal design of composite structures including materials with negative Poisson’s ratio

Multiobjective and Bilevel Programming

Multilevel parametrization for aerodynamical optimization of 3D shapes

Multilevel optimization of pipelined caches

Multilevel and multiobjective optimization in multidisciplinary design


Multilevel parallel computing for multidisciplinary optimization and probabilistic mechanics

Multidisciplinary optimization procedure for high speed aircraft using semi-analytical sensitivity analysis procedure and multilevel decomposition

Multi-level simulation and numerical optimization of complex engineering designs

Multilevel Hierarchical Decision Making in Stochastic Marketing–Production Systems


Multilevel Optimization Procedures for Gas Turbine Design: Part II — Solution and Examples

  • Authors: Fabio Ghiglino, Aristide Massardo

  • Published in: Volume 3: Coal, Biomass and Alternative Fuels; Combustion and Fuels; Oil and Gas Applications; Cycle Innovations, 1994.

  • DOI:

  • Get bib file

Multilevel optimization applied to hull girder design using three panel forms


Molecular conformation on the CM-5 by parallel two-level simulated annealing

Multilevel optimization of space trusses using continuum modelling

Multilevel optimization of high speed VLSI interconnect networks by decomposition

Multilevel Optimization

Multilevel Optimization Techniques for Aircraft

Multilevel optimization with multiple objectives and mixed design variables

Multilevel optimization using a continuum model for structures

Multilevel optimization in the design of a high-performance GaAs microcomputer

Multilevel methodology for a class of non-separable optimization problems

Multilevel Pseudocyclic Codes

Multilevel Optimization of Large-Scale Structures in a Parallel Computing Environment

Modules in high level programming languages

Multilevel optimization of frames with beams including buckling constraints

Modeling Public-Private Interaction: Bilevel Programming Approach

Multilevel Hierarchical Optimization of Aircraft Trajectories

Multilevel/multidisciplinary optimization scheme for sizing a transport aircraft wing

Multilevel Optimization of Composite Structures

Multilevel Optimization Procedure of Composite Structure

Multilevel optimization algorithms in computer aided production control in process industry



Multilevel Optimization for Discrete Systems

Multilevel optimization: A mathematical programming perspective

Multicriteria Optimization in Study of Multilevel Hierarchic Systems

Multilevel Stackelberg strategies in linear-quadratic systems

Multilevel optimization of the complex of operations

Multilevel Optimal Control of Interconnected Distributed Parameter Systems

Multilevel Control Optimization Using Subsystem Relative Performance Index Sensitivity

Multilevel optimization for conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water

Mathematical Programs with Optimization Problems in the Constraints

Multilevel Optimization Techniques with Application to Trajectory Decomposition