Bilevel-search particle swarm optimization for computationally expensive optimization problems

Bi-Attempted Based Optimization Algorithm For Numerical Optimization Problems

Bi-objective Optimization Model for Determining Shelter Location-allocation in Humanitarian Relief Logistics

Bi-Level Programming for Earning Management in Imprecise and Random Environments

Bilevel Trajectory Optimization for Hypersonic Cruise Vehicle Using Bilevel Directed Search Domain

Bilevel optimal configuration of generalized energy storage considering power consumption right transaction

Bilevel Integer Programs with Stochastic Right-Hand Sides

Bi-objective Decisions and Partition-Based Methods in Bayesian Global Optimization

Bi-level model reductions for multiscale stochastic optimization of cooling water system

Bilevel Optimization

Bi-level multi-objective combinatorial optimization using reference approximation of the lower level reaction

Bilevel Linear Optimization Under Uncertainty

Bi-level programming enabled design of an intelligent maritime search and rescue system

Bilevel Optimization: Theory, Algorithms, Applications and a Bibliography

Bilevel Data-Driven Modeling Framework for High-Dimensional Structural Optimization under Uncertainty Problems

Bi-Directional Evolutionary Structural Optimization for Crashworthiness Structures

Bi-Level Optimization of the Energy Recovery System from Internal Combustion Engines of a Cruise Ship

Bi-level Cross Entropy Method and Optimal Control for Air Traffic Sequencing and Trajectory Optimization

Bilevel Programming for Traffic Signal Coordinated Control considering Pedestrian Crossing

Bilevel programming model and algorithms for flight gate assignment problem

Bi-Level Optimization Using Improved Bacteria Foraging Optimization Algorithm

Bilevel Optimal Control: Existence Results and Stationarity Conditions

Bilevel Optimization and Variational Analysis

Bilevel Optimization of Regularization Hyperparameters in Machine Learning

Bilevel optimization problem with random-term-absent max-product fuzzy relation inequalities constraint

Bi-level Optimization Application for Urban Traffic Management

Bi-level Programming of Park Energy Internet Considering Economy and Security

Bi-level optimization for locating fast-charging stations in large-scale urban networks

Bilevel Optimization Model for Resilient Configuration of Logistics Service Centers

BOLIB: Bilevel Optimization LIBrary of Test Problems

B-POP: Bi-level parametric optimization toolbox

Bilevel programming methods for computing single-leader-multi-follower equilibria in normal-form and polymatrix games

Bi-level Programming Model for Distribution Generation in Active Distribution Network Considering Static Island Power Supply Restoration Strategy

Bi-level multi time-scale voltage/var optimization and control in a hybrid distribution network

Bi-level planning model of conventional missile multi-strike strike maneuvers

Bi-Level Optimization Problem to Develop Optimal Strategy of a Generator in Competitive Environment

Bilevel programming approach to demand response management with day-ahead tariff

Bi-Level Multi-Objective Stochastic Linear Fractional Programming with General form of Distribution

BIPAP (Biphasic Positive Airway Pressure/BiLevel/DuoPAP/BiVent)

Bilevel dynamic continuum model for housing allocation and transportation emission problems in an urban city

Bi-level Proximal Policy optimization for Stochastic Coordination of EV Charging Load with Uncertain Wind Power

Bilevel Optimization Using Stationary Point of Lower-Level Objective Function for Discriminative Basis Learning in Nonnegative Matrix Factorization

Bilevel Optimization Problems of Distribution of Interbudgetary Transfers Under Given Limitations

Bilevel programming model of low energy consumption AGV scheduling problem at automated container terminal

Bi-level Optimization Model of O2O Fresh Product Experience Store Location Considering Service Quality

Bi-level Programming of AC/DC Hybrid Distribution Network Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm

Bilevel Programming-Based Unit Commitment for Locational Marginal Price Computation

Bi-objective evolutionary optimization of level of service in urban transportation based on traffic density

Basics of Multilevel Inverters

Bi-level Programming Method for Regional energy Expansion Optimization

Bi-Level Optimization Model for Greener Transportation by Vehicular Networks

Bilevel optimal coordinated control strategy for park-level integrated energy system

Bilevel innovization

Bi-level Day Ahead Optimization of V2G Dispatch Strategy Based on the Dynamic Discharging Electricity Price

Bilevel Optimization Based on Kriging Approximations of Lower Level Optimal Value Function

Bilevel Disjunctive Optimization on Affine Manifolds

Bi-level chance constraint programming model for hazardous materials distribution

Bilevel Optimization-Based Time-Optimal Path Planning for AUVs

Bi-level optimization of laminated composite structures using particle swarm optimization algorithm

Bilevel Optimal Dispatch Strategy for a Multi-Energy System of Industrial Parks by Considering Integrated Demand Response

Bilevel optimization based transmission expansion planning considering phase shifting transformer

Bilevel Models on the Competitive Facility Location Problem

Bi-level dynamic optimization with feedback

Bi-level Programming Model for Exclusive Bus Lanes Configuration in Multimodal Traffic Network

Bi-level programming for the energy retrofit planning of street lighting systems

Bi-level flight path optimization for UAV formations

Bilevel Optimization: Reformulation and First Optimality Conditions

Bi-level problem as a plain multi-objective optimization problem: A preliminary study

Bi-level multiobjective geometric programming (BL-MOGP) problem under fuzziness

Bilevel Optimal Control, Equilibrium, and Combinatorial Problems with Applications to Engineering

Bayesian optimization approach of general bi-level problems

Bilevel programming for generating discrete representations in multiobjective optimization

Bi-level programming approach to optimal strategy for vendor-managed inventory problems under random demand

Bi-level and Multi-Level Programming Problems: Taxonomy of Literature Review and Research Issues

BLEAQ based solution for bilevel reliability-allocation problem

Bi-level optimization for maintenance service contracts involving three parties using genetic algorithm

Bi-level programming model for solving distribution center problem: A case study in Northern Thailand’s sugarcane management

Bilevel linear programming with lower-level fuzzy objective function

  • Authors: Puchit Sariddichainunta, Masahiro Inuiguchi

  • Published in: 2017 Joint 17th World Congress of International Fuzzy Systems Association and 9th International Conference on Soft Computing and Intelligent Systems (IFSA-SCIS), 2017.

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ifsa-scis.2017.8023221

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Bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization for strut-and-tie modelling of three-dimensional structural concrete

Bi-Level Optimization as a Tool for Implementation of Intelligent Transportation Systems

Bi-level Problem and SMD Assessment Delinquent for Single Impartial Bi-level Optimization

Bi-level programming for supplier selection under quantity discount policy

Bi-level programming model of truck congestion pricing at container terminals

Basic Computer Architecture

Bilevel Optimal Control With Final-State-Dependent Finite-Dimensional Lower Level

Bi-level programming for the strategic energy management of a smart city

Bilevel Optimization Model for the Development of Real-Time Strategies to Minimize Epidemic Spreading Risk in Air Traffic Networks

Behavioral pricing of energy swing options by stochastic bilevel optimization

Bi-objective bilevel optimization of distribution center locations considering user equilibria

Bilevel linear programming with ambiguous objective function of the follower

Bi-level optimization for eco-traffic signal system

Bilevel Programming, Equilibrium, and Combinatorial Problems with Applications to Engineering 2016

  • Authors: Vyacheslav V. Kalashnikov, Stephan Dempe, Timothy I. Matis, José-Fernando Camacho-Vallejo, Sergii V. Kavun

  • Published in: Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2016, 1–3, 2016.

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/4360909

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Bilevel programming approach to optimizing a time-variant electricity tariff for demand response

Bi-level programming model to ticket price of Lan-xin high-speed railway based on competitive perspective

Bi-Level Optimization of a Conceptual Metallic Wing Box with Stiffness Constraints

Bilevel linear programming with fuzzy random variables through absolute deviation minimisation

Bilevel Genetic Algorithm with Clustering for Large Scale Traveling Salesman Problems

Bi-level heat exchanger network synthesis with evolution method for structure optimization and memetic particle swarm optimization for parameter optimization

Bi-level stochastic approximation for joint optimization of hydroelectric dispatch and spot-market operations

Bilevel Construction Site Layout Optimization Based on Hazardous-Material Transportation

Bilevel optimization of block compressive sensing with perceptually nonlocal similarity

Bilevel programming for price-based electricity auctions: a revenue-constrained case

Bilevel stochastic transportation problem with exponentially distributed demand

Bi level kapurs entropy based image segmentation using particle swarm optimization

Bi-level optimization of electricity tariffs and PV distributed generation investments

Bilevel Programming Problems

Bi-Objective Bilevel Programming Problem: A Fuzzy Approach

Bilevel Programming, Equilibrium, and Combinatorial Problems with Applications to Engineering

Bilevel and multi-objective dynamic construction site layout and security planning

Bilevel Quadratic Fractional/Quadratic Problem

Bilevel programming problems with simple convex lower level

Bus Priority Network Design Based on Bi-Level Programming

Bilevel Optimization with Nonsmooth Lower Level Problems

Bi-Level Optimization in a Transport Network

Bilevel Optimization in the Context of Intermodal Pricing: State of Art

Bi-Level Optimization for Available Transfer Capability Evaluation in Deregulated Electricity Market

Bilevel Programming Merger Analysis in Banking

Bilevel Neighborhood Search Hybrid Algorithm for the Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem

Bi-level Programming for Competitive Strategic Bidding Optimization in Electricity Markets

Bi-level Sensor Planning Optimization Process with Calls to Costly Sub-processes

Bilevel multiobjective packaging optimization for automotive design

Bi-level linear programming based interval optimization for SCED in the presence of wind power uncertainty

Bilevel Optimization as a Regularization Approach to Pseudomonotone Equilibrium Problems

Bi-Level Design Optimization of the Hatch Door Mechanism

Bilevel Optimization Strategy for Aircraft Wing Design Using Parallel Computing

Bilevel and Multilevel Programming

Benders Decomposition for Discrete–Continuous Linear Bilevel Problems with application to traffic network design

Bilevel minimax theorems for non-continuous set-valued mappings

Bilevel framework for optimal design of incentives for wind investments

Bilevel approach for the optimal control of interconnected microgrids

Bilevel competitive facility location and pricing problems

Bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization for design-dependent fluid pressure loading problems

Bilevel direct search method for leader–follower problems and application in health insurance

Bi-directional evolutionary level set method for topology optimization

Bi-level multi-objective programming problem with fuzzy demands: a fuzzy goal programming algorithm

Bilevel Generalized Least Squares Estimation of Dynamic Origin–Destination Matrix for Urban Network with Probe Vehicle Data

  • Authors: Peng Cao, Tomio Miwa, Toshiyuki Yamamoto, Takayuki Morikawa

  • Published in: Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2333(1), 66–73, 2013.

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.3141/2333-08

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Bi-level optimization allocation model of water resources for different water industries

Bilevel formulation of a policy design problem considering multiple objectives and incomplete preferences

Bi-level programming model of fast fashion product logistics network under pre-sale strategy

Bilevel programming model and algorithm for logistics network with interval constraints

Bi-level optimization programming for the shipper-carrier network problem

Bi-level programming based real-time path planning for unmanned aerial vehicles

Bilevel programming and the separation problem

Bi-Level Optimization for Cross-Sectional Size of Bus Body

Bilevel Multi-Objective Optimization and Decision Making

Bi-Level Virtue Epistemology

Bi-level image sharpening method based on parallel computing

Bi-Level Multi-criteria Multiple Constraint Level Optimization MODELS and Its Application

Bilevel invex equilibrium problems with applications

Bilevel derivative-free optimization and its application to robust optimization

Bilevel model for multi-reservoir operating policy in inter-basin water transfer-supply project

Bilevel optimization: on the structure of the feasible set

Bilevel programming and price setting problems

Bilevel heat exchanger network synthesis with an interactive multi-objective optimization method

Bi-level optimization for a dynamic multiobjective problem

Bilevel Optimization Approach to Design of Network of Bike Lanes

  • Authors: Mahmoud Mesbah, Russell Thompson, Sara Moridpour

  • Published in: Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2284(1), 21–28, 2012.

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.3141/2284-03

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Bi-Level Multi-Objective Absolute-Value Fractional programming Problems: A Fuzzy Goal Programming approach

Bilevel Biobjective Pseudo Boolean Programming Problems

Better growth decisions: early mover, fast follower or late follower?

Bi-level optimization for risk-based regional hurricane evacuation planning

Bilevel problems over polyhedra with extreme point optimal solutions

Bi-Level Reserve Requirement Optimization Based on Reserve Channel in Mixed Market

Bilevel and Multilevel Programming

Bi-level programming model for the paid use of waterfront resources

Bi-level programming model and algorithm weighing features and price of iron ore for pig iron cost

Bilevel fuzzy optimization to pre-process traffic data to satisfy the law of flow conservation

Bilevel Multiobjective Programming Problem with Fuzzy Parameters

Bilevel Optimization

Bilevel Multi-objective Optimization Problem Solving Using Progressively Interactive EMO

Bilevel Network Interdiction Models: Formulations and Solutions

Bus Rapid Transit Optimization Network Based on Bi-Level Programming Model

Bilevel programming applied to power system vulnerability analysis under multiple contingencies

Bi-parametric convex quadratic optimization

Bilevel Highway Route Optimization

  • Authors: Min Wook Kang, Ning Yang, Paul Schonfeld, Manoj Jha

  • Published in: Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2197(1), 107–117, 2010.

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.3141/2197-13

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Bilevel Optimization of Container Cranes

Bi-level programming model for inventory control of deteriorating items based on VMI

Bi‐level programming based contra flow optimization for evacuation events

Bilevel Approach of a Decomposed Topology Optimization Problem

BiLevel programming Data Envelopment Analysis with constrained resource

Bilevel Programming Model for Minimum-Cost Travel Time Data Collection with Time Windows

  • Authors: Haifeng Yu, Steven I-Jy Chien, Ching-Jung Ting

  • Published in: Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2197(1), 29–35, 2010.

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.3141/2197-04

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Bilevel optimization formulation for parameter estimation in vapor–liquid(–liquid) phase equilibrium problems

Bilevel programming with discrete lower level problems

Bi-Level Programming Model of Urban Traffic Network Considering Noise Pollution Control

Bi-level Optimization of Blended composite Panels

Bi-Level Programming of Regional Logistics System with Elastic Demand Based on Fuzzy C-Means Clustering

Bi-Level Optimization Model and Algorithm of the Layout of Integrated Transport Hub in Urban Traffic Network

Bilevel optimization based multi-model modeling method for nonlinear systems

Bilevel Programming for Evaluating Revenue Strategy of Railway Passenger Transport under Multimodal Market Competition

Bilevel convex programming models

Bilevel Programming Model for Optimal Number and Scale of Coal Mining Companies

Bilevel programming model and solution method for mixed transportation network design problem

Bilevel Programming: The Montreal School

Bilevel multiplicative problems: A penalty approach to optimality and a cutting plane based algorithm

Bi-level model reduction for coupled problems

Bilevel allocation-location model for state owned reserve warehouse

Bilevel model selection for support vector


Bilevel time minimizing transportation problem

Bilevel noniterative interconnected optimization

Bi-level Programming Model and Solution Algorithm for Decision-Making on Passenger Route Allocation of Coach Stations

Bi-Level Adaptive Weighted Sum Method for Multidisciplinary Multi-Objective Optimization

Bi-Level Programming Model for Urban Bus Lanes’ Layout

Bilevel optimization applied to strategic pricing in competitive electricity markets

Better Binary List-Decodable Codes Via Multilevel Concatenation

Blind Bi-Level Image Restoration With Iterated Quadratic Programming

Bi-Level Programming Model in Road Network Programming and Its Genetic Algorithm

Bi-level programming for continuous network design of comprehensive transportation system based on external optimization

Bi-ACO: A Tool for Solving Bi-Criteria Optimization

Bilevel genetic algorithm for the flexible job-shop scheduling problem

Bilevel Negotiation Protocol for Multiagent Simulation of Housing Transactions and Market Clearing Processes


Bilevel Model and Solution Algorithm for Dynamic Transit Schedule Planning Problem

Bilevel programming approach applied to the flow shop scheduling problem under fuzziness

Bilevel programs with extremal value function: global optimality

Bilevel programming for the continuous transport network design problem

Bilevel programming: A survey

Bilevel Decision with Generalized Semi-infinite Optimization for Fuzzy Mappings as Lower Level Problems

Bi-level Dynamic Optimization of Pumped-storage Hydroplants in a Competitive Power Pool. Part I: Model and Algorithm

Bilevel Optimisation of Prices in a Variety of Transportation Models

Bilevel Programming Approach to Optimizing a Logistic Distribution Network with Balancing Requirements

Bi-Level Methods for Semi-Infinite Programming

Bilevel Formulation for Optimal Traffic-Information Dissemination

  • Authors: Fan Yang, Henry X. Liu, Rachel R. He, Xuegang Ban, Bin Ran

  • Published in: Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1836(1), 21–28, 2003.

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.3141/1836-04

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Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis (BLISS) for Concurrent and Distributed Processing

  • Authors: Jaroslaw Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Troy Altus, Matthew Phillips, Robert Sandusky

  • Published in: 9th AIAA/ISSMO Symposium on Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, 2002.

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2002-5409

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Bilevel programming applied to optimising urban transportation

Bundle Trust-Region Algorithm for Bilinear Bilevel Programming

BLISS/S: a new method for two-level structural optimization

Bilevel Fuzzy Control for Traffic Intersections in the Arterial Road

Bilevel Integrated System Synthesis with Response Surfaces

BLISS/S - A new method for two-level structural optimization

Bilevel Optimisation of Transportation Networks

Bilevel And Other Modelling Approaches to Urban Traffic Management and Control

Bilevel Linear Programming, Multiobjective Programming, and Monotonic Reverse Convex Programming

Bilevel programming applied to the flow shop scheduling problem

Bilevel programming in traffic planning: Models, methods and challenge

Bilevel and multilevel programming: A bibliography review

Bilevel Models for Optimum Designs Which Are Insensitive to Perturbations in Variables and Parameters

  • Authors: Krishnakumar Badhrinath, J. R. Jagannatha Rao

  • Published in: 20th Design Automation Conference: Volume 2 — Robust Design Applications; Decomposition and Design Optimization; Optimization Tools and Applications, 1994.

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1115/detc1994-0108

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Bi-criteria optimization of structures liable to instability

Bilevel linear programming

Bilevel Transportation Network Design Models and Solution Algorithms


Bilevel Effects in Urban Residential Patterns

Bi-Level Homemade Bed Elevator